The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
These are the end notes for the partial translation of the Anglo Saxon Chronicles and the no.
's relate to note marks in the preceeding translated text.
(1) This introductory part of the "Chronicle" to An. I. first
printed by Gibson from the Laud MS. only, has been corrected
by a collation of two additional MSS. in the British Museum,
"Cotton Tiberius B" lv. and "Domitianus A" viii. Some
defects are also here supplied. The materials of this part
are to be found in Pliny, Solinus, Orosius, Gildas, and
Bede. The admeasurement of the island, however inaccurate,
is from the best authorities of those times, and followed by
much later historians.
(2) Gibson, following the Laud MS. has made six nations of five,
by introducing the British and Welsh as two distinct tribes.
(3) "De tractu Armoricano." -- Bede, "Ecclesiastical History" i.
I. The word Armenia occurring a few lines above in Bede, it
was perhaps inadvertently written by the Saxon compiler of
the "Chronicle" instead of Armorica.
(4) In case of a disputed succession, "Ubi res veniret in
dabium," etc. -- Bede, "Ecclesiastical History" i. I.
(5) Reada, Aelfr.; Reuda, Bede, Hunt. etc. Perhaps it was
originally Reutha or Reotha.
(6) This is an error, arising from the inaccurately written MSS.
of Orosius and Bede; where "in Hybernia" and "in Hiberniam"
occur for "in hiberna". The error is retained in Wheloc's
(7) Labienus = Laberius. Venerable Bede also, and Orosius, whom
he follows verbatim, have "Labienus". It is probably a
mistake of some very ancient scribe, who improperly supplied
the abbreviation "Labius" (for "Laberius") by "Labienus".
(8) Of these early transactions in Britain King Alfred supplies
us with a brief but circumstantial account in his Saxon
paraphrase of "Orosius".
(9) "8 die Aprilis", Flor. M. West.
(10) Gibbon regrets this chronology, i.e. from the creation of
the world, which he thinks preferable to the vulgar mode
from the Christian aera. But how vague and uncertain the
scale which depends on a point so remote and undetermined as
the precise time when the world was created. If we examine
the chronometers of different writers we shall find a
difference, between the maximum and the minimum, of 3368
years. The Saxon chronology seems to be founded on that of
Eusebius, which approaches the medium between the two
(11) An. 42, Flor. This act is attributed by Orosius, and Bede
who follows him, to the threatening conduct of Caligula,
with a remark, that it was he (Pilate) who condemned our
Lord to death.
(12) An. 48, Flor. See the account of this famine in King
(13) Those writers who mention this discovery of the holy cross,
by Helena the mother of Constantine, disagree so much in
their chronology, that it is a vain attempt to reconcile
them to truth or to each other. This and the other notices
of ecclesiastical matters, whether Latin or Saxon, from the
year 190 to the year 380 of the Laud MS. and 381 of the
printed Chronicle, may be safely considered as
interpolations, probably posterior to the Norman Conquest.
(14) This is not to be understood strictly; gold being used as a
general term for money or coin of every description; great
quantities of which, it is well known, have been found at
different times, and in many different places, in this
island: not only of gold, but of silver, brass, copper, etc.
(15) An interpolated legend, from the "Gesta Pontificum",
repeated by Bede, Florence, Matth. West., Fordun, and
others. The head was said to be carried to Edessa.
(16) Merely of those called from him "Benedictines". But the
compiler of the Cotton MS., who was probably a monk of that
order, seems not to acknowledge any other. Matthew of
Westminster places his death in 536.
(17) For an interesting and minute account of the arrival of
Augustine and his companions in the Isle of Thanet, their
entrance into Canterbury, and their general reception in
England, vid. Bede, "Hist. Eccles." i. 25, and the following
chapters, with the Saxon translation by King Alfred. The
succeeding historians have in general repeated the very
words of Bede.
(18) It was originally, perhaps, in the MSS. ICC. the
abbreviation for 1,200; which is the number of the slain in
Bede. The total number of the monks of Bangor is said to
have been 2,100; most of whom appear to have been employed
in prayer on this occasion, and only fifty escape by flight.
Vide Bede, "Hist. Eccles." ii. 2, and the tribe of Latin
historians who copy him.
(19) Literally, "swinged, or scourged him." Both Bede and Alfred
begin by recording the matter as a vision, or a dream;
whence the transition is easy to a matter of fact, as here
stated by the Norman interpolators of the "Saxon Annals".
(20) This epithet appears to have been inserted in some copies of
the "Saxon Chronicle" so early as the tenth century; to
distinguish the "old" church or minster at Winchester from
the "new", consecrated A.D. 903.
(21) Beverley-minster, in Yorkshire.
(22) He was a native of Tarsus in Cilicia, the birth-place of St.
(23) This brief notice of Dryhtelm, for so I find the name
written in "Cotton Tiberius B iv." is totally unintelligible
without a reference to Bede's "Ecclesiastical History", v.
12; where a curious account of him may be found, which is
copied by Matthew of Westminster, anno. 699.
(25) Wothnesbeorhge, Ethelw.; Wonsdike, Malmsb.; Wonebirih, H.
Hunt; Wodnesbeorh, Flor.; Wodnesbirch, M. West. There is no
reason, therefore, to transfer the scene of action to
Woodbridge, as some have supposed from an erroneous reading.
(26) The establishment of the "English school" at Rome is
attributed to Ina; a full account of which, and of the
origin of "Romescot" or "Peter-pence" for the support of it,
may be seen in Matthew of Westminster.
(27) Beorgforda, Ethelw.; Beorhtforda, Flor.; Hereford and
Bereford, H. Hunt; Beorford, M. West. This battle of
Burford has been considerably amplified by Henry of
Huntingdon, and after him by Matthew of Westminster. The
former, among other absurdities, talks of "Amazonian"
battle-axes. They both mention the banner of the "golden
(28) The minuteness of this narrative, combined with the
simplicity of it, proves that it was written at no great
distance of time from the event. It is the first that
occurs of any length in the older MSS. of the "Saxon
(29) Penga in the original, i.e. "of pence", or "in pence";
because the silver penny, derived from the Roman "denarius",
was the standard coin in this country for more than a
thousand years. It was also used as a weight, being the
twentieth part of an ounce.
(30) Since called "sheriff"; i.e. the reve, or steward, of the
shire. "Exactor regis". -- Ethelw.
(31) This is the Grecian method of computation; between the hours
of three and six in the morning. It must be recollected,
that before the distribution of time into hours, minutes,
and seconds, the day and night were divided into eight equal
portions, containing three hours each; and this method was
continued long afterwards by historians.
(32) This wanton act of barbarity seems to have existed only in
the depraved imagination of the Norman interpolator of the
"Saxon Annals", who eagerly and impatiently dispatches the
story thus, in order to introduce the subsequent account of
the synod at Bapchild, so important in his eyes. Hoveden
and Wallingford and others have repeated the idle tale; but
I have not hitherto found it in any historian of authority.
(33) St. Kenelm is said to have succeeded Cenwulf:
"In the foure and twentithe yere of his kyngdom
Kenulf wente out of this worlde, and to the joye of
It was after that oure Lord in his moder alygte
Eigte hondred yet and neygentene, by a countes rigte,
Seint Kenelm his yonge sone in his sevende yere
Kyng was ymad after him, theg he yong were."
-- "Vita S. Kenelmi, MS. Coll. Trin Oxon."
(34) i.e. the Danes; or, as they are sometimes called, Northmen,
which is a general term including all those numerous tribes
that issued at different times from the north of Europe,
whether Danes, Norwegians, Sweons, Jutes, or Goths, etc.;
who were all in a state of paganism at this time.
(35) Aetheredus, -- Asser, Ethelwerd, etc. We have therefore
adopted this orthography.
(36) It is now generally written, as pronounced, "Swanage".
(37) For a more circumstantial account of the Danish or Norman
operations against Paris at this time, the reader may
consult Felibien, "Histoire de la Ville de Paris", liv. iii.
and the authorities cited by him in the margin. This is
that celebrated siege of Paris minutely described by Abbo,
Abbot of Fleury, in two books of Latin hexameters; which,
however barbarous, contain some curious and authentic matter
relating to the history of that period.
(38) This bridge was built, or rebuilt on a larger plan than
before, by Charles the Bald, in the year 861, "to prevent
the Danes or Normans (says Felibien) from making themselves
masters of Paris so easily as they had already done so many
times," etc. -- "pour empescher que les Normans ne se
rendissent maistres de Paris aussi facilement qu'ils
l'avoient deja fait tant de lois," etc. -- Vol. i. p. 91,
folio. It is supposed to be the famous bridge afterwards
called "grand pont" or "pont au change", -- the most ancient
bridge at Paris, and the only one which existed at this
(39) Or, in Holmsdale, Surry: hence the proverb --
"This is Holmsdale,
Never conquer'd, never shall."
(40) The pirates of Armorica, now Bretagne; so called, because
they abode day and night in their ships; from lid, a ship,
and wiccian, to watch or abide day and night.
(41) So I understand the word. Gibson, from Wheloc, says -- "in
aetatis vigore;" a fact contradicted by the statement of
almost every historian. Names of places seldom occur in old
MSS. with capital initials.
(42) i.e. the feast of the Holy Innocents; a festival of great
(43) i.e. the secular clergy, who observed no rule; opposed to
the regulars, or monks.
(44) This poetical effusion on the coronation, or rather
consecration, of King Edgar, as well as the following on his
death, appears to be imitated in Latin verse by Ethelwerd at
the end of his curious chronicle. This seems at least to
prove that they were both written very near the time, as
also the eulogy on his reign, inserted 959.
(45) The following passage from Cotton Tiberius B iv., relating
to the accession of Edward the Martyr, should be added here
-- In his days,
On account of his youth,
The opponents of God
Broke through God's laws;
And others many;
And marr'd monastic rules;
Minsters they razed,
And monks drove away,
And put God's laws to flight --
Laws that King Edgar
Commanded the holy
Saint Ethelwold bishop
Firmly to settle --
Widows they stript
Oft and at random.
Many breaches of right
And many bad laws
Have arisen since;
Prove only worse.
Then too was Oslac
The mighty earl
Hunted from England's shores.
(46) Florence of Worcester mentions three synods this year;
Kyrtlinege, Calne, and Ambresbyrig.
(47) Vid. "Hist. Eliens." ii. 6. He was a great benefactor to
the church of Ely.
(48) This was probably the veteran historian of that name, who
was killed in the severe encounter with the Danes at Alton
(Aethelingadene) in the year 1001.
(49) i.e. at Canterbury. He was chosen or nominated before, by
King Ethelred and his council, at Amesbury: vid. an. 994.
This notice of his consecration, which is confirmed by
Florence of Worcester, is now first admitted into the text
on the authority of three MSS.
(50) Not the present district so-called, but all that north of
the Sea of Severn, as opposed to West-Wales, another name
(51) See a more full and circumstantial account of these events,
with some variation of names, in Florence of Worcester.
(52) The successor of Elfeah, or Alphege, in the see of
Winchester, on the translation of the latter to the
archiepiscopal see of Canterbury.
(53) This passage, though very important, is rather confused,
from the Variations in the MSS.; so that it is difficult to
ascertain the exact proportion of ships and armour which
each person was to furnish. "Vid. Flor." an. 1008.
(54) These expressions in the present tense afford a strong proof
that the original records of these transactions are nearly
coeval with the transactions themselves. Later MSS. use the
(55) i.e. the Chiltern Hills; from which the south-eastern part
of Oxfordshire is called the Chiltern district.
(56) "Leofruna abbatissa". -- Flor. The insertion of this
quotation from Florence of Worcester is important, as it
confirms the reading adopted in the text. The abbreviation
"abbt", instead of "abb", seems to mark the abbess. She was
the last abbess of St. Mildred's in the Isle of Thanet; not
Canterbury, as Harpsfield and Lambard say.
(57) This was a title bestowed on the queen.
(58) The "seven" towns mentioned above are reduced here to
"five"; probably because two had already submitted to the
king on the death of the two thanes, Sigferth and Morcar.
These five were, as originally, Leicester, Lincoln,
Stamford, Nottingham, and Derby. Vid. an. 942, 1013.
(59) There is a marked difference respecting the name of this
alderman in MSS. Some have Ethelsy, as above; others,
Elfwine, and Ethelwine. The two last may be reconciled, as
the name in either case would now be Elwin; but Ethelsy, and
Elsy are widely different. Florence of Worcester not only
supports the authority of Ethelwine, but explains it "Dei
(60) Matthew of Westminster says the king took up the body with
his own hands.
(61) Leofric removed the see to Exeter.
(62) So Florence of Worcester, whose authority we here follow for
the sake of perspicuity, though some of these events are
placed in the MSS. to very different years; as the story of
(63) i.e. The ships of Sweyne, who had retired thither, as before
(64) "Vid. Flor." A.D. 1049, and verbatim from him in the same
year, Sim. Dunelm. "inter X. Script. p. 184, I, 10. See
also Ordericus Vitalis, A.D. 1050. This dedication of the
church of St. Remi, a structure well worth the attention of
the architectural antiquary, is still commemorated by an
annual loire, or fair, on the first of October, at which the
editor was present in the year 1815, and purchased at a
stall a valuable and scarce history of Rheims, from which he
extracts the following account of the synod mentioned above:
-- "Il fut assemble a l'occasion de la dedicace de la
nouvelle eglise qu' Herimar, abbe de ce monastere, avoit
fait batir, seconde par les liberalites des citoyens, etc."
("Hist. de Reims", p. 226.) But, according to our
Chronicle, the pope took occasion from this synod to make
some general regulations which concerned all Christendom.
(65) Hereman and Aldred, who went on a mission to the pope from
King Edward, as stated in the preceding year.
(66) Nine ships were put out of commission the year before; but
five being left on the pay-list for a twelvemonth, they were
also now laid up.
(67) The ancient name of Westminster; which came into disuse
because there was another Thorney in Cambridgeshire.
(68) i.e. at Gloucester, according to the printed Chronicle;
which omits all that took place in the meantime at London
(69) Now Westminster.
(70) i.e. Earl Godwin and his crew.
(71) i.e. from the Isle of Portland; where Godwin had landed
after the plunder of the Isle of Wight.
(72) i.e. Dungeness; where they collected all the ships stationed
in the great bay formed by the ports of Romney, Hithe, and
(73) i.e. Godwin and his son Harold.
(74) i.e. the tide of the river.
(75) Godwin's earldom consisted of Wessex, Sussex, and Kent:
Sweyn's of Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, Somerset, and
Berkshire: and Harold's of Essex, East-Anglia, Huntingdon,
(76) The church, dedicated to St. Olave, was given by Alan Earl
of Richmond, about thirty-three years afterwards, to the
first abbot of St. Mary's in York, to assist him in the
construction of the new abbey. It appears from a MS. quoted
by Leland, that Bootham-bar was formerly called "Galman-
hithe", not Galmanlith, as printed by Tanner and others.
(77) Called St. Ethelbert's minster; because the relics of the
holy King Ethelbert were there deposited and preserved.
(78) The place where this army was assembled, though said to be
very nigh to Hereford, was only so with reference to the
great distance from which some part of the forces came; as
they were gathered from all England. They met, I
conjecture, on the memorable spot called "Harold's Cross",
near Cheltenham, and thence proceeded, as here stated, to
(79) This was no uncommon thing among the Saxon clergy, bishops
and all. The tone of elevated diction in which the writer
describes the military enterprise of Leofgar and his
companions, testifies his admiration.
(80) See more concerning him in Florence of Worcester. His lady,
Godiva, is better known at Coventry. See her story at large
in Bromton and Matthew of Westminster.
(81) He died at his villa at Bromleage (Bromley in
Staffordshire). -- Flor.
(82) He built a new church from the foundation, on a larger plan.
The monastery existed from the earliest times.
(83) Florence of Worcester says, that he went through Hungary to
(84) This must not be confounded with a spire-steeple. The
expression was used to denote a tower, long before spires
(85) Lye interprets it erroneously the "festival" of St. Martin.
-- "ad S. Martini festum:" whereas the expression relates to
the place, not to the time of his death, which is mentioned
(86) This threnodia on the death of Edward the Confessor will be
found to correspond, both in metre and expression, with the
poetical paraphrase of Genesis ascribed to Caedmon.
(87) These facts, though stated in one MS. only, prove the early
cooperation of Tosty with the King of Norway. It is
remarkable that this statement is confirmed by Snorre, who
says that Tosty was with Harald, the King of Norway, in all
these expeditions. Vid "Antiq. Celto-Scand." p. 204.
(88) i.e. Harold, King of England; "our" king, as we find him
Afterwards called in B iv., to distinguish him from Harald,
King of Norway.
(89) Not only the twelve smacks with which he went into Scotland
during the summer, as before stated, but an accession of
force from all quarters.
(90) On the north bank of the Ouse, according to Florence of
Worcester; the enemy having landed at Richale (now
"Riccal"). Simeon of Durham names the spot "Apud Fulford,"
i.e. Fulford-water, south of the city of York.
(91) It is scarcely necessary to observe that the term "English"
begins about this time to be substituted for "Angles"; and
that the Normans are not merely the Norwegians, but the
Danes and other adventurers from the north, joined with the
forces of France and Flanders; who, we shall presently see,
overwhelmed by their numbers the expiring, liberties of
England. The Franks begin also to assume the name of
Frencyscan or "Frenchmen".
(92) i.e. in the expedition against the usurper William.
(93) i.e. -- threw off their allegiance to the Norman usurper,
and became voluntary outlaws. The habits of these outlaws,
or, at least, of their imitators and descendants in the next
century, are well described in the romance of "Ivanhoe".
(94) The author of the Gallo-Norman poem printed by Sparke
elevates his diction to a higher tone, when describing the
feasts of this same Hereward, whom he calls "le uthlage
(95) Or much "coin"; many "scaettae"; such being the denomination
of the silver money of the Saxons.
(96) Florence of Worcester and those who follow him say that
William proceeded as far as Abernethy; where Malcolm met
him, and surrendered to him.
(97) Whence he sailed to Bretagne, according to Flor. S. Dunelm,
etc.; but according to Henry of Huntingdon he fled directly
to Denmark, returning afterwards with Cnute and Hacco, who
invaded England With a fleet of 200 sail.
(98) i.e. Earl Waltheof.
(99) This notice of St. Petronilla, whose name and existence seem
scarcely to have been known to the Latin historians, we owe
exclusively to the valuable MS. "Cotton Tiberius" B lv. Yet
if ever female saint deserved to be commemorated as a
conspicuous example of early piety and christian zeal, it
must be Petronilla.
(100) The brevity of our Chronicle here, and in the two following
years, in consequence of the termination of "Cotton
Tiberius" B iv., is remarkable. From the year 1083 it
assumes a character more decidedly Anglo-Norman.
(101) i.e. In the service; by teaching them a new-fangled chant,
brought from Feschamp in Normandy, instead of that to which
they had been accustomed, and which is called the Gregorian
(102) Literally, "afeared of them" -- i.e. terrified by them.
(103) Probably along the open galleries in the upper story of the
(104) "Slaegan", in its first sense, signifies "to strike
violently"; whence the term "sledge-hammer". This
consideration will remove the supposed pleonasm in the Saxon
phrase, which is here literally translated.
(105) "Gild," Sax.; which in this instance was a land-tax of one
shilling to a yardland.
(106) -- and of Clave Kyrre, King of Norway. Vid. "Antiq.
(107) Because there was a mutiny in the Danish fleet; which was
carried to such a height, that the king, after his return to
Denmark, was slain by his own subjects. Vid. "Antiq. Celto-
Scand", also our "Chronicle" A.D. 1087.
(108) i.e. a fourth part of an acre.
(109) At Winchester; where the king held his court at Easter in
the following year; and the survey was accordingly deposited
there; whence it was called "Rotulus Wintoniae", and "Liber
(110) An evident allusion to the compilation of Doomsday book,
already described in A.D. 1085.
(111) Uppe-land, Sax. -- i.e. village-church.
(112) i.e. jurisdiction. We have adopted the modern title of the
district; but the Saxon term occurs in many of the ancient
evidences of Berkeley Castle.
(113) i.e. of the conspirators.
(114) Literally "became his man" -- "Ic becom eowr man" was the
formula of doing homage.
(115) Literally a "gossip"; but such are the changes which words
undergo in their meaning as well as in their form, that a
title of honour formerly implying a spiritual relationship
in God, is now applied only to those whose conversation
resembles the contemptible tittle-tattle of a Christening.
(116) From this expression it is evident, that though preference
was naturally and properly given to hereditary claims, the
monarchy of Scotland, as well as of England, was in
principle "elective". The doctrine of hereditary, of
divine, of indefeasible "right", is of modern growth.
(117) See the following year towards the end, where Duncan is
said to be slain.
(118) Peitevin, which is the connecting link between
"Pictaviensem" and "Poitou".
(119) Now called Southampton, to distinguish it from Northampton,
but the common people in both neighbourhoods generally say
"Hamton" to this day (1823).
(120) The title is now Earl of Shrewsbury.
(121) The fourth of April. Vid. "Ord. Vit."
(122) Commonly called "Peter-pence".
(123) Literally "head-men, or chiefs". The term is still
retained with a slight variation in the north of Europe, as
the "hetman" Platoff of celebrated memory.
(124) This name is now written, improperly, Cadogan; though the
ancient pronunciation continues. "Cadung", "Ann. Wav."
erroneously, perhaps, for "Cadugn".
(125) It was evidently, therefore, not on Michaelmas day, but
during the continuance of the mass or festival which was
celebrated till the octave following.
(126) In the original "he"; so that the Saxons agreed with the
Greeks and Romans with respect to the gender of a comet.
(127) Literally "took leave": hence the modern phrase to signify
the departure of one person from another, which in feudal
times could not be done without leave or permission formally
(128) That is, within the twelve days after Christmas, or the
interval between Christmas day, properly called the
Nativity, and the Epiphany, the whole of which was called
Christmas-tide or Yule-tide, and was dedicated to feasting
(129) The King of Norway and his men. "Vid. Flor."
(130) His monument is still to be seen there, a plain gravestone
of black marble, of the common shape called "dos d'ane";
such as are now frequently seen, though of inferior
materials, in the churchyards of villages; and are only one
remove from the grassy sod.
(131) i.e. before he left Winchester for London; literally
"there-right" -- an expression still used in many parts of
England. Neither does the word "directly", which in its
turn has almost become too vulgar to be used, nor its
substitute, "immediately", which has nearly superseded it,
appear to answer the purpose so well as the Saxon, which is
equally expressive with the French "sur le champ".
(132) This expression shows the adherence of the writer to the
Saxon line of kings, and his consequent satisfaction in
recording this alliance of Henry with the daughter of
Margaret of Scotland.
(133) "Auvergne" at that time was an independent province, and
formed no part of France. About the middle of the
fourteenth century we find Jane, Countess of Auvergne and
Boulogne, and Queen of France, assisting in the dedication
of the church of the Carmelites at Paris, together with
Queen Jeanne d'Evreux, third wife and widow of Charles IV.,
Blanche of Navarre, widow of Philip VI., and Jeanne de
France, Queen of Navarre. -- Felib. "Histoire de Paris",
vol. I, p. 356.
(134) A title taken from a town in Normandy, now generally
written Moretaine, or Moretagne; de Moreteon, de Moritonio,
(135) "cena Domini" -- commonly called Maundy Thursday.
(136) Now Tinchebrai.
(137) Matilda, Mathilde, or Maud.
(138) Henry V. of Germany, the son of Henry IV.
(139) Or, "in the early part of the night," etc.
(140) That is, the territory was not a "fee simple", but subject
to "taillage" or taxation; and that particular species is
probably here intended which is called in old French "en
queuage", an expression not very different from that in the
(141) i.e. to the earldom of Flanders.
(142) "Mense Julio". -- Flor.
(143) We have still the form of saying "Nolo episcopari", when a
see is offered to a bishop.
(144) i.e. East Bourne in Sussex; where the king was waiting for
a fair wind to carry him over sea.
(145) The Nativity of the Virgin Mary.
(146) i.e. an inclosure or park for deer. This is now called
Blenheim Park, and is one of the few old parks which still
remain in this country.
(147) This may appear rather an anticipation of the modern see of
Salisbury, which was not then in existence; the borough of
Old Saturn, or "Saresberie", being then the episcopal seat.
(148) St. Osythe, in Essex; a priory rebuilt A. 1118, for canons
of the Augustine order, of which there are considerable remains.
(149) i.e. Of the Earl of Anjou.
(150) The writer means, "the remainder of this year"; for the
feast of Pentecost was already past, before the king left
(151) The pennies, or pence, it must be remembered, were of
silver at this time.
(152) i.e. Clergy and laity.
(153) This word is still in use, but in a sense somewhat
different; as qualms of conscience, etc.
(154) See an account of him in "Ord. Vit." 544. Conan, another
son of this Alan, Earl of Brittany, married a daughter of
(155) i.e. Henry, King of England.
(156) "A se'nnight", the space of seven nights; as we still say,
"a fortnight", i.e. the space of fourteen nights. The
French express the space of one week by "huit jours", the
origin of the "octave" in English law; of two by "quinte
jours". So "septimana" signifies "seven mornings"; whence
the French word "semaine".
(157) Literally, "woned". Vid Chaucer, "Canterbury Tales", v.
7745. In Scotland, a lazy indolent manner of doing anything
is called "droning".
(158) The Abbot Henry of Angeli.
(159) "Thou shalt destroy them that speak `leasing,'" etc.
(160) i.e. Vexed, harassed, fatigued, etc. Milton has used the
word in the last sense.
(161) The monastery of Angeli.
(162) Aurora Borealis, or the northern lights.
(163) "Any restless manoeuvre or stratagem." Both words occur in
Chaucer. See "Troilus and Criseyde", v. 1355, and
"Canterbury Tales", v. 16549. The idea seems to be taken
from the habits of destructive and undermining vermin.
(164) Now called "Good-Friday".
(165) The tower of the castle at Oxford, built by D'Oyley, which
(166) The MS. is here deficient.
(167) Or Vaudeville.
[End of "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle"]